School reform is typically approached as an all-encompassing top-down restructuring. Though it makes sense, from a planning point of view, to take a comprehensive approach, such an approach can take a long time to implement and often spurs opposition, resentment, and even sabotage. An ingrained culture cannot be changed all at once, even with strong top-down control. However, it is possible to seed a counter-culture of high achievement within a larger culture of low achievement: to build new behaviors up from below while top-down mandates are taking effect.
Culture, Counter-culture, Disruptive Innovation, Coup d’ecole